Prohibition of Insulting the Prophet’s Companions
It is unlawful (prohibited) to insult/disgrace any one of the companions of the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-.
Author: -Ustadz Yazid bin Abdul Qadir Jawas
“From Abu said al Khudry, he said that the Messenger of Allah. -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, “Do not insult my companions, for even if one of you spend gold as the size of mount Uhud, it will never catch up to the degree of one of them, not even a half of it.” (A sound hadith, narrated by Bukhari 4:195, Muslim 7:188, Ahmad 3:11, Abu Dawud 4658 and Tirmidhi no. 3952).
The Prophet’s companions -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- were people who had received Allah’s please, -Glorified and Exalted be He. They had fought with the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- to uphold Islam and propagate it to the whole country, thus we are able to taste the sweetness of iman and Islam.
They had sacrificed vast amount of wealth and even their souls in their bid to uphold Allah’s Cause. They were people who totally submitted themselves to Islam, genuinely defended the interest of the muslims, were loyal to Allah and His messenger without compromise, they obeyed all of Allah’s laws, and their aim was to obtain Allah’s please and His paradise.
They practically lived the model of exemplary Islamic society life in their daily, the model that was announced in the Qur’an and the Sunnah: they practiced it out, which was, and is, never could we find again inside the Islamic history.
Their life was based on their faith, their love for Allah and His messenger, and they always walked upon the principles that Allah had decided for them.
The justness of the companions have long been agreed and believed by all muslims from time to time until today; we believe that they were just and right on their path. However, during the long history of Islam, there was always some group of people who undermined and corroded the existence of their struggle beside the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him.
This group/party still claimed that they were “Islam”? They were more famous with the name “Shia or Shi’a religion) because they have different beliefs from what the muslims believed in. The shi’a religion today is the Shi’a Immamiyah Itsna ‘Asy’ariyah (the 12 imams). Since a long time ago until today, this sect has agreed to sentence the three rightly guided caliphs (sans Ali Ibn Abi Thalib) as infidel/disbeliever, as well as all companions after the death of the Messenger of Allah – peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-, except for 3 or 4 men among them. All of their books were full with insults, disgraces, and curses to the rightly guided caliphs and the other companions. In the book Al-Furu’ul Kaafi by Al Kulaini, in book 3, Kitabur Raudhah page 115, it is written: “That one of the disciple of Muhammad Al Baqir asked about Abu Bakr and Umar, and he replied: “No one from among us (the Shia) who dies, except in the state of hating and wrathful to Abu Bakr and Umar.” Even Khumaini in his book, “Kasyful Asrar”‘ page 113-114 (published by Persia) accused the companions of being infidel. Wal-‘Iyaadzu billah. 1)
The followers of Shia in Indonesia- comprises of the intellectual, university student, and even common people – have been trying to find the companions individual flaws and thus doubting their justness in order to strengthen their rotten beliefs regarding the companions and their goal to destroy Islam, since whenever the companions have successfully been degraded, automatically, the Qur’an and the sunnah are degraded as well, since the companions were the first ones to accept the teaching of Islam based on the Qur’an and the sunnah, directly under the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-. The Shiites trie to destroy Islam.
Discussing the stance and position of the companions and criticize it means criticizing the Qur’an and the sunnah of the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-. Doubting their justness means doubting Allah’s testimony over it, as well as His and His messenger’s praises to them.
The shiites criticized the Prophet’s companions by using the severed parts of Qur’anic verses and hadith, to satisfy their evil desire, and thus they left tens to hundreds verses and valid hadith of the Prophet, which contains praises to the justness of his companions.
The correct standard to measure the companions deed are the Qur’an and the sunnah of the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-, and as the secondary support, the consensus among the muslim scholars. Therefore, I will elaborate about the indications regarding the justness of the Prophet’s companions.
B. Definition of Prophet’s Companions
According to The Language
Shahabi comes from the root word of “shahabat”, which means “friendship”, and the parameter of which is not measured by its length; rather, it applies to everyone who befriends other, in a short or a long time. Thus, we could say that a person befriends so-and-so for a certain time, a year, a month, a day, or an hour. Hence, friendship could be in short, or long time. Abu Bakr Al Baqilani (338-403 H) said, “Based on this etymological definition, it is compulsory to apply this definition to anyone who befriended the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- even if it was just for an hour during the day. This is the root of the word “companion”.” 2)
According to the Terminology used by the Experts of Hadith
Ibn Katsir said: “A companion is a muslim who met the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-, even though it didn’t happen for long, and he didn’t narrate even one hadith from him.”
Ibn Katsir also said: “This is the opinion of the majority of the former and the latter of scholars.”3)
Al Hafizh Ibn Hajar Al ‘Asqalani further complemented Ibn Katsir’s definition, by saying: “From what I’ve researched, the most valid definition of “a companion” is: “A person who met (with) the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- while being faithful, and he died in Islam (while being a muslim,-ed)”. This definition comprises anyone who met the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-, be it in a short, or in a long time, whether he narrated a hadith from him or not, and whether he joined him in a battle or not, as well as anyone who ever saw him although he didn’t sit with him, or the ones who couldn’t literally see him because of blindness. This definition also comprises anyone who was faithful, then committed apostasy, but after that returned to embrace Islam and died as a muslim, such as the case of Asy’ats Ibn Qais.
Next, the exclusion of this definition of companion comprises:
A person who met him while still being a disbeliever, even though he embraced Islam in later days (i.e., after the death of the Prophet).
A person who believed in Prophet Isa (Jesus), from among the People of Scriptures before the Prophethood took place, and after it happened, he didn’t believe in the Prophet.
A person who believed him, but then committed apostasy, and died an apostate.
May Allah protect us from it. 4)
Also excluded from the definition of the companion, the hypocrites, despite their interaction with the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- . Allah and His messenger despised the hypocrites, and hypocrisy is the opposite of faith, and Allah will put the hypocrites together with the astray, the disbelievers, and the residents of Hell. (See: the Qur’an, chapters An Nisaa’/The Women: 137,138,141,142,143,145, and ‘Ali Imran/The Family of ‘Imran:8-20).
The way the Messenger of Allah and his companions dealt with the hypocrites clearly showed that the companions were not hypocrites, and the hypocrites were not companions. Thus, we couldn’t say that among the companions, there were people who committed hypocrisy! The Qur’an verses have clearly differentiated between them.
Allah had ordered Prophet Muhammad -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- to fight the disbelievers and the hypocrites (in chapter At Tauba/The Repentance:73, At Tahriim/The Prohibition:9); as for the believers, Allah ordered His prophet to be compassionate to them (in chapter Asy Syu’araa’/the Poets:215, Al Fath/The Victory:29)
The hypocrites were never be able to attain Allah’s forgiveness (chapter At Tawba:80, Al Munafiqun/The Hypocrites :6), whereas the faithful would attain His forgiveness (chapter Muhammad:19)
The Prophet, his companions, and the faithful were not allowed to pray the janaza prayer for the deceased among the hypocrites (chapter At Tawba: 84); as for the deceased among the faithful, it is compulsory to perform the janaza prayer upon him, as mentioned in the valid hadith. And there are still many of the verses and the hadith that differentiate between them.
3. According to The Scholarly Opinion
The definition given by Ibn Hajar is the definition according to the majority of the scholars, amongst them were Imam Bukhari, Imam Ahmad, Imam Madini, Al ‘Iraqi, Al Khatib Al Baghdadi, Suyuti, etc. Ibn Hajar said; This is the strongest opinion. The experts in the principle of Fiqh who came with the similar opinion was Ibn al Haji , Al Amidi, etc. 5)
C. How could we identify a companion?
We could identify that a certain person was a companion of the Prophet by several means:
Well-known (mutawatir) revelation, such as the rightly-guided caliph and the ten companions who received the promise to enter the Paradise in advance.
Famous revelation which al most reach the degree of mutawatir, such as the case of Dhamam bin Tsa’labah and ‘Ukkaasyah Ibn Mihsan.
A revelation from another companion, or from a trustworthy student of the companion, that so-and-so was the Prophet’s companion, such as the case of Hamamah bin Abi Hamamah Ad-Dausiy who died in Ashfahan. Abu Musa al Asy’ari witnessed that Hamamah heard the hadith directly from the Prophet – peace and prayer of Allah be upon him.
A person claimed that he was one the Prophet’s companions, and it was possible that he met the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- and according to the research of the expert in hadith, he was, indeed, a just man, and he died before 110 H (6)
D. The Meaning of the Justness of the Companions
In Arabic Language
Justness (‘adalah) or just (‘adl) is the antonym of “Jaur” which means evil. A just man (rojulun ‘adl) means: a person is dubbed as just means the said person is whom (Allah) is pleased upon, and whose testimony is accepted.” (See: The dictionary Muktarus-Shihah page 417, published by. Darul Fikr).
In the terminology used by the expert of hadith
Al Hafizh Ibn Hajar said, ” The meaning of justness is people who possesses piety and honor.” (See: Nuzhatun Nazhar Syarah Nukhbatul-Fikar page 29, published by Maktabat Thayibah in 1404H).
Explanation of the terminology
The meaning of the justness (‘adalah) of the companions is that all companions were pious and cautious people, i.e., they were people who always steer away from evildoings and vague matters. It is impossible for the companions to lie upon the name of Allah’s messenger -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- or to affiliate something illegitimate to him. Sheikh Waliyullaah Ad-Dahlawi said, “By examining all of these informations we could conclude that all of the companions believe that lying upon the name of Allah’s messenger – peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- is the severest of sins, hence they were being very cautious not to commit any lie upon his name.” 7)
Al Khatib Al Baghdadi said, “All hadith which narrational chain is connected, from its narrators up to the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- should not be practiced unless after it is examined rigorously in its narrators’ justness, and thus it is mandatory to check their biographies, with the exception being the Prophet’s companions -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- , since their justness is certain and well-known, by Allah’s praises upon them. Allah had declared about their purity, and had chosen them (as the helpers to His messenger), based on the indications from the Qur’an.”9)
E. Indications from the Qur’an and the Sunnah Supporting the Justness of the Companions
1. Allah decreed, which can be translated as,
“You are now the best nation brought forth for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah.” (Chapter Ali-Imran:110)
“And it is thus that We appointed you to be the community of the middle way.” (Chapter Al Baqara/The Cow:143)
2. The Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- had told that the companions and any muslim who follows their path are the just ones, as in his saying below:
3. Allah is pleased with them (the companions from the emigrants and the helpers), and people who follow their path in kind.
“And of those who led the way – the first of the Emigrants (Muhajirun) and the Helpers (Ansar), and those who followed them in the best possible manner – Allah is well-pleased with them and they are well-pleased with Allah. He has prepared for them Gardens beneath which rivers flow; therein they will abide forever. That is the supreme triumph.” (Chapter At Tawba/The Repentance:100)
“Allah was much pleased with the believers when they swore fealty to you under the tree. He knew what was in their hearts. So He bestowed inner peace upon them and rewarded them with a victory near at hand” (chapter Al Fath:18)
“Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger, and those who are with him are firm with the unbelievers but compassionate with one another. You see them occupied in bowing and prostrating and in seeking Allah’s bounty and good pleasure.” (Chapter Al Fath:29)
4. The traits of the companions mentioned in the Qur’an are:
- They were the truly faithful people. (Chapter Al Anfaal:74)
- They were people who follow the straight path. (Chapter Al Hujuraat/The Chambers:7)
- They were people who acquire victory. (Chapter At Tawba/The Repentance:20)
- They were the people of truth. (Chapter At Tawba/The Repentance:119)
- They were the pious people. (Chapter Al Fath:26)
- They were people who enrage the disbelievers and they hated infidelity. (Chapter Al Fath:29)
- And many other traits that are mentioned inside of the Qur’an.
5. The Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said,
“The best among men is in my time, then the next, and then the next of it, then later a group of people which the testimony of one of them precedes his vow, and his vow precedes his testimony. “ (A valid hadith narrated by Bukhari 4::189, Muslim 7:184-185, Ahmad 1:378,417,434,442, etc.)
6. The Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said,
“For the present to convey (the teaching) to the absentee.” Ibn Hibban said, “This hadith is the strongest indication that points out that every companion was just, and not one of them was disgraceful and weak.” (See: Al-Jarh wat Ta’dil by Abi Lubabah ; Ibn Hibban 1:123).
Ibn Abbas said, “Do not insult or disgrace the companions of Allah’s -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-. Indeed, the togetherness of one of them with the Messenger of Allah for a while is better than the deed of one of you for forty years.” (Narrated by Ibn Battah, the status is valid) 10).
“The Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, “None of those who pledged their loyalty under the tree (at Hudaibiyya) that will enter the Hell.” (A valid hadith, narrated by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Tirmidzi dan Muslim).
“The Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, Never will he enter the Hell, one who joined the battle of Badr and the pact of Hudaibiyya.” (A valid hadith, narrated by Ahmad III:396 from Jabir).
These verses and hadith clearly point that the Prophet’s companions -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- were people who had received Allah’s and His messenger’s praises and flatteries. They had greatly serviced Islam and the muslims. The Islam that is embraced by the muslims until the Last Day is tightly related to their sacrifices in joining the battle of Badr and the other battles to uphold Islam. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- had told the muslims that whatever they’ve spent and donated in Allah’s Cause could never level the degree achieved by the companions, even though they gave a mount of gold as large as the mount Uhud, or any other valuable goods.
‘Ali bin Abi Thalib -may Allah be pleased with him- said, regarding the companions of Allah’s messenger -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- “none of you will be able to level them. They had spent their days in sand and dust (in the battlefield), while at night, they stood, bowed, and prostrated (worshipped Allah) one after another, their faces shone with earnestness, as if they have stepped on the burned coal whenever they remembered about the Day of Recompense (the Hereafter). Their foreheads bore the mark of prostration, when they remembered Allah, their tears trailed down their cheeks and soaked their clothes, they stood as if they were trees that bent due to the soft gushes of wind due to their fear of Allah’s punishment, and they wished for Allah’s rewards.” 11) then he said, “They were my friends, who had passed away, whom we deserve to miss and mourn of their loss.” 12)
F. The Scholars Consensus regarding the Justness of All of the Companions
Al Khatib Al Baghdadi (he was born on 392 H, and died year 463 H) said, “The companions were people with strong faith, pure beliefs, and they were forever better than all of the just people, and people who pay their zakat who live after them. This is the stance of all scholars.” 13)
Ibn Abdil Barr (lived 363-463 H) said, “We do not need to check about the justness of the companions, since it has already been the consensus of the scholars of the muslims, i.e., ahl sunnah wal jama’a, that they were all just.” 14)
Ibn Hazm (lived 384-457 H) said, “All of the companions were just, eminent, and be pleased upon. Thus we should ennoble and respect them, ask for them to be forgiven, and love them.” 15)
Ibn Katsir (lived 701-774 H) said, “According to the Ahl Sunnah wal Jama’a, all companions were just, since Allah the Glorified and Exalted had praised them inside of the Qur’an, and the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- also praised their manners and morals in the sunnah. They had sacrificed their wealth and lives for Allah’s messenger -peace and prayer of Allah be upon them-, and they wished for the good rewards (from Allah).”16)
To tell the truth, there are still a lot of praises and adulations from the scholars regarding the justness of the companions, but we believe that what we’ve mentioned are already more than enough to satisfy people with fair perception.
G. How The Scholars respond to the Feud among the companions
Sheikh al Islam Ibn Taimiyya (lived 661-728 H) explained in his compilation of fatwas, “We restrain ourselves (from talking) about whatever happened among them, and we know that some stories that reached us about them (their viciousness) are all lies. They (the companions) were mujtahid (one rightful to determine a law based on their interpretation of indication, -ed) , if they did right, then they will be rewarded twice, will be rewarded for their righteous deed, and receive forgiveness for their sins. Whereas if they did commit mistakes, indeed, they had been given Allah’s favor, and Allah will forgive their sins by their repentance, or by the good deed they did which could erase their sins, or by other means. Verily, they were the best among ummah, and in the best of time, as said by the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him.-” 17)
Ibn Katsir said, “As for the feud that took place amongst them after the death of Allah’s messenger – peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- , some of it happened unintentionally, such as the battle of Jamal (between ‘Ali and ‘Aisha), and some happened based on ijtihad (personal interpretation) such as the battle of Shiffin (between ‘Ali and Muawiya). For ijtihad could be right and could be wrong at times, however, (if the mujtahid was mistaken), one who did it will receive Allah’s forgiveness and a reward, even though he did mistake. If he was right, he will receive two rewards. In this case, ‘Ali and his compeers were closer to the truth compared to Muawiya, may Allah be pleased with them all (‘Ali, Muawiya, ‘Aisha, and their companions).” 18)
Although the feud that happened among the companions costed some lives, i.e., some of them died during the battle, but they had repented immediately because they were people who were always in their repentance to Allah, Allah had promised to accept their repentance. Allah decreed, which can be translated as, ” It is likely that Allah will turn to them in mercy, for Allah is All- Forgiving, Ever Merciful.” (Chapter At Tawba/The Repentance:102).
H. The Companions weren’t Flawless (free from sin)
It is true that Allah’s and His messenger’s testimony over the faith of the companions and how Allah and His messenger were please with them do not equal to them being flawless, or spared of sins and mistakes, or that they never slipped even once from the right path, because they were not angels, nor that they were prophets. In fact, upon committing sin, they would hastily ask for Allah’s forgiveness and repent to Him. The Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said,
“Every soul of the sons of Adam does mistake, and the best among those who did mistake is the one who repent it., (A good hadith, narrated by Ahmad 3: 198, Tirmidzi, Ibn Maja, Hakim 4:244. Shahih Jami’us Shagir 4391, Takhrijul Misykat No. 2431)
Abu Bakr Ibn Al ‘Arabi said, “The sins (of the companions) didn’t invalidate their justness if they had repented.” 19)
We firmly believe that the companions who had committed mistake had all repented to Allah, and that they couldn’t be referred as hypocrite nor infidel. All scholars of ahl Sunnah wal Jama’a had agreed that the companions who had a hand in feud, joined the battle of Jamal and the battle of Shiffin, were all faithful and just persons. And that their individual or collective mistake didn’t abort Allah’s praises upon them.
When Abu Ja’far Muhammad Ibn Ali Al Husain was asked about the people (the companions) who participated in the battle of Jamal, he answered, “They (the companions) were still upon their faith, and they weren’t infidel. “20)
Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, and Ibn Mas’ud said, “Ali Ibn Abi Thalib prayed the janaza prayer for the companions who supported Muawiya.” 21)
What the Scholars Said regarding People who Insult/Disgrace the Prophet’s Companions
Imam Malik said, “People who hate the Prophet’s companions are disbelievers. ” (See: Tafsir Ibnu Katsir V page. 367-368) or IV page 216, published by Daarus Salam Riyadh.
Al Qadhi ‘Iyaadh said, “According to majority of the scholars, people who insult/disgrace the Prophet’s companions-peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- must receive the ta’ziir punishment (i.e., must be flogged according to the verdict of Shari’a judge, -ed). (See: Fathul Bari VII page. 36).
Imam Abu Zur’ah Ar-Raazi (died in 264 H) said, “If you see someone insulting one of the Prophet’s companions, -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- , know that that person is a disbeliever (infidel). That is because the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- was the truly a messenger of Allah, the Qur’an is true, and whatever he brought was true, and the ones who conveyed his teachings to us, were the Prophet’s companions-peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- . They (the infidels) Insult our testimony in order to nullify the Qur’an and the Sunnah (so that we no longer believe in the Qur’an and the sunnah,-ed). It is they who deserved of disgrace.”22)
Imam Al Hafizh Syamsuddin Muhammad ‘Utsman Adz-Dzahabi, better known as Imam Adz Dzahabi (lived 673/747 H) said, “Whoever insults them (the companions) and disgrace them, indeed, he has left Islam and afflicted damage to the muslims. Those insulter are people who bear grudge and deny the praises that Allah revealed inside the Qur’an, as well as the Messenger of Allah who praised them with virtues and love… Insulting them brings consequence of insulting the main deliverer of shari’a (the Messenger of Allah), and insulting the deliverer of shari’a means insulting his teachings (i.e., the Qur’an and the Sunnah).”23).
I think that my explanation regarding the Qur’an and the sunnah is already very clear, moreover, it is supported by the consensus of the scholars of Ahl Sunnah wal Jama’a. Therefore, the believers should treat the companions according to what written in the Qur’an and the sunnah, namely:
Believe that they are the best of people
Believe that we are required to follow their examples in kind (At Tawba/The repentance:100), and that we shouldn’t deviate from their path (An Nisaa’/The Women:15), and hold fast to the sunnah of Allah’s messenger and the rightly-guided caliphs.
Believe that all of the companions are just
Believe that none of them were totally flawless, since no one was, or is, flawless, except the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-.
Be please with them, and we should pray for them to be forgiven, and we should restrain from discussing about anything that happened among them (Al Hasyr:10).
The Orientalists, Jews, and Shiites, are the ones who throw insults and disgrace the companions of Allah’s messenger the most.
In Shia/Shiite beliefs, the companions are not just; they even labeled the companions as infidels; these Shia are the astray, misguided and misguiding people, and they are the ones who commit infidelity.
The ruling of insulting/disgracing the companions is unlawful, and the one who commits it will be the object of Allah’s curse, as well as the angel’s and all of human being’s curses. The Prophet said, “Whoever insults my companions, he will be the object of the curses of Allah, the angels, and all human being.” (Narrated by Thabrani).
The hypocrites and the apostates who die in that indecent state, is included as disbelievers and not regarded as the Prophet’s companions, even though they met the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-.
All companions were just, and they were still named as the faithful ones, even though they had disagreement among them (See: chapter Al Hujuraat/The Chambers:9-10).
No matter how many charity that we spent in Allah’s Cause, we could never rival the degree of even one of the Prophet’s companion.
We are obliged to love the companions of the Prophet.
We should pray for people who embraced the faith prior to us, as in the Qur’an, ” (And it also belongs to) those who came after them, and who pray: “Lord, forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in faith, and do not put in our hearts any rancour towards those who believe. Lord, You are the Most Tender, the Most Compassionate.” (Chapter al Hasyr/The Exile:10)
1. See: Shurtani Mutadhodataani by Abul Hasan All Al-Hasani An-Nadwi : Aqaidus Syi’ah fii Miizan page. 85-87 by DR Muhammad Kamil Al-Hasyim 1st edition, 1409H/1988M
2. See: Lisanul “Arab II:7; Al-Kilayat fi ‘Ilmir Riwayah page 51, by Al-Khathib Al-Baghdadi ; As-Sunnah Qablat-Tadwin page. 387.
3. Al-Baa’itsul Hatsits Syarah Ikhtisar ‘Uluumil-Hadits Lil-Hafizh Ibnu Katsir by Sheikh Ahmad Muhammad Syakir page. 151 published by. Darut turats. 1399H/1979
4. Al-Ishabah fil Tanyizis-Shahabah I page. 7-8 published by Daarul-fikr 1398H.
5. See: Fathul Mughits 3/93-95, ‘Ulumul-Hadits by Ibnu Shaleh page. 146 ; At-Taqyid wal-idah Al-‘Iraqi pag . 292 Alfiyah Suyuti page. 57; Fathul Bari 7/3;Al-Ihkam fi Ushulil-Ahkam Lil-Amidi:83; Tanbih Dzawi Najabah ila ‘Adalatis Shahabah page 11.
6. See: Tadribur-Rawi 2:213 by Imam Suyuthi published by. Daarul Maktabah ilmiyah 1399H/1979M ; Fathul-Mughits 3:140 Ushulul-Hadits 405-406.
7. See: Tadribur-Rawi 2 page. 215
8. See: Al-Kifayah fi ‘Ilmir-Riwayah page 93
9. See: ‘Umul Hadits page 329, Libni Shalah ; Mudzakirah Ushulil-Fiqhlis-Syahqithi page 126
10. See: Syarah Aqidah Thahawiyah page. 469 according to the Takhrij of Sheikh Al-Albani
11. See: Najhul Balaghah, reviewed by Dr. Shubhi Shaleh, published by. Daarul Kutub Al-Lubnani (Beirut) page 143,177,178 cited from Shuratani Mutadhatani, Tarjamah Bey Arifin page. 16-17
12. Similar source.
13. See: Al-Kifayah fi ‘Ilmir-Riwayah page. 49; Tanbih Dzawin Najabahilla ‘Adaalatis Shahabah by Qurasy bin Umar bin Ahmad page. 23
14. See: Al-Iti’ab fi Ma’rifati Ashab book I page. 9 published by Daarul Fikr 1398H
15. See: Ushulul Hadits page 386 quoted from Al-Ihkam fil Ushulil-Ahkam
16. See: Al-Baitsul-Hatsits fi Ikhtishar Ulumil Hadits page 154
17. See: Majmu Fatawa Syaikhul Islam Ibnu Taimiyah book III page 406
18. See: Al-Ba’itsul Hatsits syarah Ikhtisar Ulumil hadits page 154
19. See: Al-‘Awashin minal Qawashim tahqiq Syaikh Muhibudin Al-Khatib page 94, 5th edition, published by Daarul Mathba’ah Salafiayh, Cairo.
20. See: Ushulul -Itiqad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama’ah oleh Imam Al-Lalikai, reviewed by DR Ahmad Sa’ad Hamdan book V & VI page 1059 -1060 published by. Daar Thayyibah-Riyadh
21. Similar source
22. See: Al-Awashim minal Qawashim page 34
23. See: Al-Khabair Adz-Dahabi, reviewed by Abu Khalid Al-husain bin Muhammad as-Sa’idl page. 352-353 Daarul Fikr, 1408H. 1st edition.
24. See: Limaza Kafaral ‘ulama Al-Khumaini by Wajih Al-Madini published in. cairo (1) 1408H; Aqaidus Syi’ah fil Mizan by Dr Muhammad Kamil Al-Hasyimi, 1st edition, year 1409 H