Faith, or believe in Allah contains 4 elements (See: Syarah Ushulil Iman, page no. 13-22), which are:
First: Believe in the concrete form and existence of Allah the Exalted
The existence of Allah has long been proved by the fitra (pure character) of mankind, their intelligence, their five senses, and by shari’ah.
Evidence from fitra
Characteristically, mankind have already acknowledged the existence of the creator, the arranger, and the owner of this universe. No one deny this fact but the arrogant atheists. The Messenger of Allah -peace and blessings of Allah may be upon him-, “There is no child who is not born in a state of Fitrah, then his parents make him a Jew, or a Christian, or a Magian.” (Collected by Bukhari, in hadith no. 1292)
Evidence from Intelligence
It is a must that all creatures, from the ancient ones to future, belong to The Creator. It is impossible that they created their own selves, or coincidentally existed. Allah The Exalted mentioned argumentations from intelligence point of view, regarding the existence of The Creator in soorah Ath Thur (The Mountain), which means, “Or were they created by nothing, or were they the Creators (of themselves)?” (Ath Thuur/athe Mount: 35)
When Jubair Ibn Muth’im listened to the Messenger of Allah -peace and blessings of Allah may be upon him- reciting that verse, and he was a disbeliever back then, he said, “My heart is almost leap. That is the beginning of the faith in my heart.” (Collected by Bukhari, in hadith no. 4573)
Evidence from Shari’ah
Shari’ah has brought numerous evidences concerning the existence of Allah. All verses of the Qur’an that tell about Allah and His characteristics indicate the existence of Allah the Exalted.
Evidence from The senses
Through the senses, the evidence of Allah’s existence are divided into 2:
First, we are able to hear and to witness the du’aa being granted, and assistance being given to the calamity- afflicted ones. This fact explicitly shows the real existence of Allah the Exalted.
Second, the miracle of the prophets and the messengers, which could be witnessed and be heard by people. This is a strong proof of the existence of The One who safeguard those prophets, Allah The Exalted. Because the miracles are out of human power, and Allah bestowed them to his messengers to strengthen and assist them along their heavy tasks.
Second: Believe in the rububiyya of Allah the Exalted
Which means ‘firmly believe in Him, that He is the only Rabb, no ascription to Him, and no assistant to Him.’
“Rab” in Arabic means “One who create, own, and regulate the universe”. Thus, there is no creator, owner, or orderer of the universe but Allah alone, and none is able to grant life or death, but Allah the Exalted. Allah decreed, which means, “Unquestionably, His is the creation and command; blessed is Allah…” (Al A’raf/The Heights:54)
None of the creations who deny the rububiyya of Allah the Exalted, but the arrogant. While deep inside, he is not sure of his words of denial. Even The Pharaoh, who declared that he is God, his heart was convinced that the truth lies on the teaching of Moses, which call people to worship Allah alone.
As Allah decreed, revealing the content of Pharaoh’s heart and his followers, when they heard of the calling of Moses and Aaron, (which means): “And they rejected them while their [inner] selves were convinced thereof, out of injustice and haughtiness.” (An Naml/The Ant: 14)
And as what conversed by Moses to The Pharaoh, which is mentioned inside The Qur’an, which means, “Moses replied: ‘You know well that no one but the Lord of the heavens and the earth has sent these as eye-opening proofs. I truly think, O Pharaoh, that you are indeed doomed.'” (Al Isra’/The Night Journey: 102)
Therefore, indeed, the disbelievers of Quraish were also convinced of the rububiyya of Allah, although they ascribed Him in worshipping (uluhiyya).
Allah the Exalted decreed, which meaning is,: “Say, [O Muhammad] “To whom belongs the earth and whoever is in it, if you should know?” They will say, “To Allah.” Say, “Then will you not remember?” Say, “Who is Lord of the seven heavens and Lord of the Great Throne?” They will say, “[they belong] to Allah.” Say, “Then, will you not fear him?” Say, “In whose hand is the realm of all things -and He protects while none can protect against Him, if you should know?” They will say, “[all belong] to Allah.” Say, “Then how are you deluded?” (Al Mu’minuun/The Believers: 84-89)
Third: Believed the uluhiyya of Allah the Exalted
Believe in uluhiyya of Allah means firmly believe in Him and carry it’s consequences, which is to worship Him alone, no ascription to Him.
In a verse of Qur’an, Allah the Exalted decreed, which meaning is, “And your god is one God. There is no deity [worthy of worship] except Him, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful.” (Al Baqara/The Cow: 163)
Allah the Exalted declared, which means, “Allah Himself bears witness that there is no God but He, and likewise do the angels and those possessed of knowledge bear witness in truth and justice that there is no God but He, The All Mighty, The All Wise.” (Ali ‘Imran/The Family of ‘Imran: 18)
The messengers of Allah were tasked to call people to worship Allah alone. Allah told about their calling in His verse, which meaning is, “And We sent among them a messenger from themselves [saying], ‘Worship Allah, you have no deity other than Him, then, will you not fear Him?'” (Al Mu’minun/The Believers: 32)
Despite that, the polytheists keep rejecting that truth in their calling. They still take other as deity beside Allah the Exalted. They worshipped their idols, plead for their aids and assistance, and such are the form of attributing equals to Allah. Their deeds were nulled by Allah Himself, by these 2 evidences:
– Gods that they worshipped do not have any specialties at all to share in uluhiyya with Allah, since they are creations, unable to create anything, unable to benefits other or prevent danger, do not reign over life and death, possess no power in heavens, and do not have a right of possession at all.
Allah the Exalted decreed, pertaining this condition, by His verse, “But they have taken besides Him, gods which create nothing, while they are created, and possess not for themselves any harm or benefit and possess not [power to cause] death or life or resurrection.” (Al Furqan/The Criterion: 3)
And in soorah Saba’, “Say [O Muhammad], ‘Invoke those you claim as deities beside Allah.’ They do not possess an atom’s weight [of ability] in the heavens or on the earth, and they do not have therein any partnership [with him], nor is there for him from among them any assistant. And intercession does not benefit with Him, except for one whom He permits.” (Saba’/Sheba: 22-23)
In fact, the polytheists had confessed that Allah the Exalted is the only Rab, Creator, who grasped all power of all thing in His hand. They too, admitted that He is the only one who protects, and none can protect against Him. This confession requires the oneness of Allah in the matter of worship (uluhiyya) as in the oneness in the matter of creation (rububiyya).
Allah the Exalted stated in the holy Qur’an, which meaning is, “O mankind, worship your Lord who created you, and those before you, that you may become righteous. [He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Him].” (Al Baqara/The Cow: 21-22)
Fourth: Believe in The Names and Characteristics of Allah the Exalted
This beliefs means establishing the names and characteristics as set by Allah for Himself, inside the Qur’an and through His messenger, which suit His grandiosity, without attempting any tahrif (deviating), ta’thil (abolishment), takyif (questioning about ‘how’), and tamtsil (resembling).
Allah decreed, “And to Allah belong the best names, so invoke Him by them. And leave [the company of] those who practice deviation concerning His names. They will be recompensed for what they have been doing.” (Al A’raf/The Heights: 180)
And His decreed, “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” (Ash Shuura/The Consultation: 11)
Deviating Sects concerning the names and characteristics of Allah
Regarding believe in the names and characteristics of Allah, there are 2 sects who go astray, which are:
First: The Sect ‘Mu’aththilah’
This sect denies the attribution of names and characteristics to Allah, or denies some of His names or characteristics, for example: they believe that Allah has no face, no hand, and so on. Whereas Allah Himself has mentioned through His verses in Qur’an and various hadiths, that He indeed has hand, face, and foot, that differ from His creations, and appropriating His grandiosity and supremacy.
They perceives that establishing names and characteristics for Allah can lead to resembling Allah the Exalted to His creations.
This opinion can not be more wrong, due to:
Their belief will caused fallacies, since Allah the Exalted has established those names and characteristics for Himself, and refused anything that alike Him. If only the establishment will lead to resembling, it means that there is a contradiction among His decrees (while we know that contradiction is impossible for Him).
The similarity in names or characteristics do not automatically equals to similarity in essence. We could see out there that there are 2 people mankind in origin, who hears, sees, and talks, but their qualities of humanity, hearing, seeing, and talking are not similar one another. By this, if the difference of qualities exits amongst His similar kind of creature, then it is more likely, and clearer, for the difference to exists between the Creator and creations.
Second, The sect of ‘Musyabbihah’
That is the sect who establishes the names and characteristics for Allah, but then they go astray by believing in similarities between His and creations’ qualities. They supposes that this belief is in accordance to the verses of Qur’an, because Allah talked to His creations through comprehensible language.
And this belief is clearly mistaken, based on several points below:
Making similarities between Allah the Exalted and His creations is undoubtedly something wrong, according to man’s intelligence and shari’ah. Whereas it is impossible that the verses of Qur’an and guidance of Allah’s messenger-peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- indicate a wrong understanding of such vital matter.
Allah the Exalted talked to His creations through something which is understandable for them in it’s original meaning. But the essential meaning regarding informations about His names and characteristics is only be known to Him. Allah has established that He is the Hearing. The meaning of Word “hearing” is universally known, which is “getting or catching sounds”. But the essence of His hearing is only be known to Him. Another example: Allah the Exalted informed that about His condition, ‘istiwa’ (settle) on His Great Throne. The meaning of ‘istiwa” lexically is known and understood, which is ‘be on something’. But the exact way of how does He settle, is of no one to know but Him.
The Result of the Belief in Allah
- Worship Allah alone, thus someone will not clung his hopes but onto Him, fear nothing but Him, and worship nothing but Him.
- Perfecting love for Him, and glorify Him according to His beautiful names and supreme qualities/characteristics.
- Bringing the essence of praying into life, by performing all His commands and abandoning all His prohibitions.
- Glorify Him even more.
- “Al Jami’ Ash Shahih Al Mukhtasar”. Muhammad Ibn Ismail Al Bukhari. Dar Ibn Katsir, Beirut, 1407 in Hijra.
- “Syarah Ushul Iman” Muhammad Ibn Saleh al Othaymeen. Dar Al Qasim. Saudi Arabia. 1419 in Hijra.