Monthly Archives: September, 2012

Rulings for Having Shares in Banks and Other Institutions


Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Shalih Al ‘Uthaymeen was asked: What is the ruling for someone investing shares in banks and other institutions?


[1]. If the investment is in places that are practicing usury such as banks, it is illegal for anyone to do such investment, since those bodies were built and run on usury as their bases. Even if there are legal transactions inside them, the numbers are very limited compared to the practices of usury committed by their employees.

[2]. But investment on transactions designed for industrial business, farms, and the like, basically is legal. However, there are also some dubious aspects here, since the surplus amount of their transactions were kept in banks, thus they will take the interest (usury) over that saving, or probably they withdraw several dirhams from the bank and the bank gives them the interests.

From this point, we say: “Indeed, the safer (wara’) attitude in this matter is for one not to invest their shares in such companies”. Indeed, Allah will bestow upon him provisions, if it is known that his intention to avoid such investment merely due to his wara (avoidance of illegal things) and his fear of falling into the dubious matters.

Concerning this condition, The Messenger of Allah – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him– said:

Which means: “Both legal and illegal things are evident but in between them there are doubtful (unclear) things and most of the people have no knowledge about them. So whoever saves himself from these doubtful (unclear) things, he saves his religion and his honour. And whoever indulges in these doubtful (unclear) things is like a shepherd who grazes (his animals) near the Hima (private pasture) of someone else, and at any moment he is liable to get in it.” (Narrated by Al Bukhari, The Book of Faith, in hadith no. 52. And Muslim, in the Book of Al Musaqah, hadith no. 1599)

But what is the solution for those who already invested their shares, or who previously wanted to do such, but he did not take the better way, which is the safer one?

Here we say: “Solution for such conditions is if he received his share of profits together with a cheque that explains the sources of the profits, then:

[a]. What comes from legal sources, is considered legal.

[b]. What comes from illegal source, for example if it is evidently revealed that the profits came from bank’s interests, must be avoided, by allocating the money for public or specific interest, not to be intended as a form of worship, but as a mean to free himself from sin, since even if he intended the spending as a kind of worship, it will not be regarded as worship in shari’a. Because Allah is The Holy One, and He wont accept things but the holy ones. And also, if he could not be saved from the sin, he probably would be rewarded for his sincerity and repentance.

[c]. If he did not get the cheque that explains the sources, then the better and more cautious way is to spend half from that profits (for public interest-trans.), while the rest is still legal for him. Because if the percentage or the measure of each legal or illegal is not known, while they resemble each other, then the more cautious way is to spend the half of it, so that none will commit oppression, nor being oppressed.

[Fatawa Mu’ashirah, page no. 55-57, taken from Fatwa issued by Sheikh Ibn Uthaymeen].

Rewritten and translated from the book titled “Al Fatawa Asy Syar’iyyah fi Al Masa’il Al Ashriyyah min Fatawa ‘Ulama Al Balad Al Haram, Indonesian Title: Fatwa-Fatwa Terkini 2, Publisher: Darul Haq)

Author: Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Shalih Al ‘Uthaymeen
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Wealth and Properties: Islamic Perspective

In Islam, there are 2 detested groups, regarding the way they perceive riches and wealth. One group states that wealth is everything, and consider it as the solution of problems faced by ummah. Thus they made it as their god. They believe that the reason of human creation is to pursue and gain as much wealth as they can get.

While the other group considers that mankind is in no need of any wealth. They feel satisfy upon their activity performing obligational prayers, since they assumes that wealth is a form of satan, that must be totally avoided in this world. This odd principle drive them away from it, thus Their life occasionally depend to other people. Living a life on charities and alms from others. They feel that they no longer have enough time to win the bread for their wives, children, and family.

Both groups are wrong according to Islam’s perspective. If so, then what is the stance of Islam regarding the matter of wealth? Is it allowed to make wealth as destination of life, or da’wa? Or ..shall it be considered as ‘a wild beast’ ready to spring to it’s prey, thus all people must run away from it?? Well, the best of matters is the in between (wasath). Easy to say, but how to walk the talk?


The Holy Qur’an has described to us about the meaning of ‘al wasath’.

The Whole Universe, created for sake of mankind, belongs to Allah

The Qur’an has explained that the whole world and what within it belong to Allah the Exalted, as what revealed in verse:

أَلا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضِ أَلا إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لا يَعْلَمُونَ

“Unquestionably, to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. Unquestionably, the promise of Allah is truth, but most of them do not know.” (Yunus/Jonah: 55)

أَلا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الأرْضِ وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ إِنْ يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلا يَخْرُصُونَ

“Unquestionably, to Allah belongs whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth. And those who invoke other than Allah do not (actually) follow (His) partners. They follow not except assumption, and they are not but misjudging.” (Yunus/Jonah: 66)

And He the Exalted has created them for the sake of mankind, as in His verse:

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مَا فِي الأرْضِ جَمِيعًا

“It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth..” (Al Baqara/The Cow: 29)

And every thing made by Allah the Exalted for the sake of human being, is among His vast graces given to all of them, as He decreed:

وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأرْضِ جَمِيعًا مِنْهُ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

“And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth – all from Him. Indeed, in there are signs for a people who give thought.” (Al Jathiyyah/The Crouching: 13)

Thus, due to the fact that the origin of the universe’s creation was as part of Allah’s grace to mankind, they should never use it in falsehood. This is as stated by Allah,

وَلا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُوا بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُوا فَرِيقًا مِنْ أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ بِالإثْمِ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

“And do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly or send it (in bribery) to the rulers in order that (they might aid you) to (consume) a portion of the wealth of the people in sin, while you know (it is unlawful).” (Al Baqara/The Cow: 188)

Wealth, in the eye of Human being

As explained earlier, every single thing in this universe belongs to Allah, may He be Exalted, including wealth and properties. Basically, belongings of human being are the entrusted and trusteeship from Allah the Exalted to be used accordingly. Allah has explained in His decree:

آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَأَنْفِقُوا مِمَّا جَعَلَكُمْ مُسْتَخْلَفِينَ فِيهِ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَأَنْفَقُوا لَهُمْ أَجْرٌ كَبِيرٌ

“Believe in Allah and His Messenger and spend out of that in which He has made you successive inheritors. For those who have believed among you and spent, there will be a great reward.” (Al Hadiid/The Iron: 7)

Allah the Exalted has made the nature of wealth as the adornment of the world, and one of the biggest trial for one’s faith, as mentioned in His verses:

الْمَالُ وَالْبَنُونَ زِينَةُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلا

“Wealth and children are (but) adornment of the worldly life. But the enduring good and deeds are better to your Lord for reward and better for (one’s) hope.” (Al Kahf/The Cave: 46)

الْمَالُ وَالْبَنُونَ زِينَةُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلا

“And know that your properties and your children are but a trial and that Allah has with Him a great reward.” (Al Anfal/The Spoils of War: 28)

Wealth and properties are not the final destination, But one of the means and supplies that shall be used to support worships and righteous deeds in His Cause. Allah the Exalted has decreed :

انْفِرُوا خِفَافًا وَثِقَالا وَجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنْفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

“Go forth, whether light or heavy, and strive with your wealth and your lives in the cause of Allah. That is better for you if you only knew.” (At Tawbah/The Repentance: 41)

There are still plenty of verses in the Holy Qur’an that indicate the position of wealth as a mere intermediary to reach the goal of worship. Allah The Exalted has commanded human to give charities, alms, and zakat; which could not be accomplished but by wealth. He also also obliged the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) for those who are capable of it, and it must be done by spending some wealth. For them to be able to perform those orders, Allah the Exalted has obliged mankind to seek the legal provisions; which, by those, a person will be able to bear his responsibilities and obligations in order to fulfill the right of his wives, children, and family. Allah the Exalted declared,

وَمِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

“And out of His mercy He made for you the night and the day, that you might be rest therein and (by day) seek from His bounty and that perhaps you’ll be grateful.” (Al Qasas/The Stories: 73)

اعْمَلُوا آلَ دَاوُدَ شُكْرًا وَقَلِيلٌ مِنْ عِبَادِيَ الشَّكُورُ

“Work, O family of David, in gratitude.” And few of My servants are grateful.” (Saba’/Sheba: 13)

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الأرْضَ ذَلُولا فَامْشُوا فِي مَنَاكِبِهَا وَكُلُوا مِنْ رِزْقِهِ وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ

“It is He who made the earth tame, for you, so walk among its’ slopes and eat of His provisions and to Him is the resurrection.” (Al Mulk/The Sovereignty: 15)

Surely, of all good and righteous deeds must be done only to seek His Face and the rewards in the resurrection, which is the joy in heaven.

As with the other provisions, wealth is something to be grateful upon, as revealed in the verses:

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

“Say, ‘Indeed my prayers, my rites of sacrifice, my living and dying are for Allah, Lord of the worlds.” (Al An’aam/The Cattle: 162)

وَإِذْ تَأَذَّنَ رَبُّكُمْ لَئِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ لأزِيدَنَّكُمْ وَلَئِنْ كَفَرْتُمْ إِنَّ عَذَابِي لَشَدِي

“And (remember) when your Lord proclaimed: ‘If you are grateful, I will surely increase you (in favor); but if you deny, indeed, My punishment is severe.” (Ibrahim: 7)

Allah has warned against Avariciousness upon wealth and worldly affairs

Allah the Exalted has created mankind on the nature of loving the wealth and riches. But He dislikes those who are overpowered by their love over wealth, so bad that they become greedy, arrogant, and they neglect their Lord, Allah. Allah the Exalted has affirmed that in His decree:

وَتُحِبُّونَ الْمَالَ حُبًّا جَمًّا

“And you love wealth with immense love.” (Al Fajr/The Dawn:20)

إِنَّ الإنْسَانَ لِرَبِّهِ لَكَنُودٌ * وَإِنَّهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ لَشَهِيدٌ * وَإِنَّهُ لِحُبِّ الْخَيْرِ لَشَدِيدٌ

“Indeed, mankind to his Lord is ungrateful.And indeed he is to that a witness. And indeed he is, in love of wealth, intense.” (Al ‘Aadiyaat/The Courser: 6-8)

كَلا إِنَّ الإنْسَانَ لَيَطْغَى * أَنْ رَآهُ اسْتَغْنَى

“No! (But) indeed man transgresses. Because he sees himself self-sufficient.” (Al ‘Alaq/The Clot: 6-7)

وَلَوْ بَسَطَ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِ لَبَغَوْا فِي الأرْضِ وَلَكِنْ يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرٌ بَصِيرٌ

“And if Allah had extended (excessively) provisions for His servants, they would have committed tyranny throughout the earth. But He sends (it) down in an amount which He wills. Indeed He is, of His servants, Aware and Seeing.” (As shuura/The Consultation: 27)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تُلْهِكُمْ أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَلا أَوْلادُكُمْ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

“O you who have believed, let not your wealth and your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. And whoever does that -then those are the losers.” (Al Munafiqun/The Hypocrites: 9)

Intense love towards wealth causes him to forget about the death, until the time comes when he is wrapped in his shrouds, and buried in his grave. Allah has exclaimed:

أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ * حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ * كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ * ثُمَّ كَلا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ * كَلا لَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عِلْمَ الْيَقِينِ * لَتَرَوُنَّ الْجَحِيمَ * ثُمَّ لَتَرَوُنَّهَا عَيْنَ الْيَقِينِ * ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ

“Competition in (worldly) increase diverts you. Until you visit the graveyards. No! You are going to know. Then, no! You are going to know. No! If you only knew with knowledge of certainty. You will surely see the Hellfire. Then you will surely see it with the eye of certainty. Then you surely be asked that Day about pleasure.” (At Takathur/Competition in Increase: 1-8)

وَيْلٌ لِكُلِّ هُمَزَةٍ لُمَزَةٍ * الَّذِي جَمَعَ مَالا وَعَدَّدَهُ * يَحْسَبُ أَنَّ مَالَهُ أَخْلَدَهُ

“Woe to every scorner and mocker. Who collects wealth and (continuously) counts it. He thinks that his wealth will make him immortal. “ (Al Humazah/The Traducer: 1-3)
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Watch out: Corruption!

From Abu Humaid As Sa’idi, (he said that) Allah’s Apostle Shallallaahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam said,

هَدَايَا الْعُمَّالِ غُلُولٌ

“Gift to the employee is ghulul (properties taken from betrayal of trust , corruption)” (Recorded by Ahmad no. 23601)

عَنْ عَدِىِّ بْنِ عَمِيرَةَ الْكِنْدِىِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يَقُولُ « مَنِ اسْتَعْمَلْنَاهُ مِنْكُمْ عَلَى عَمَلٍ فَكَتَمَنَا عَلَى عَمَلٍ فَكَتَمَنَا مِخْيَطًا فَمَا فَوْقَهُ كَانَ غُلُولاً يَأْتِى بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ».

From ‘Adi Ibn ‘Amirah al Kindi, (he said that) I heard The Apostle of Allah Shallallaahu’alayh wa Sallaam said, ” Whoever amongst you who are trusted by a job, then he did not deliver a needle or things which are more valuable than that to us, that property will be carried by him on Day of Resurrection as ghulul (corrupted property)” (Collected by Muslim, no. 4848).

مَنِ اسْتَعْمَلْنَاهُ عَلَى عَمَلٍ فَرَزَقْنَاهُ رِزْقًا فَمَا أَخَذَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ غُلُولٌ ».

In the authority of Abdullah Ibn Buraidah, from his father, Buraidah, (he stated that) The Prophet Shallallaahu’alayh wa Sallam said,

“Whoever person we employed, and we had paid the wages, then all properties that he got out of his wages (from that work, trans. ) are considered as ghulul (corrupted properties).” (Collected by Abu Daud, no. 2943, In Kaifa pg. 11, Sheikh Abdul Muhsin al Abbad said, ‘Narrated by Abu Daud with an authentic chain, and the status is saheeh according to al Albani)

Watch out Corruption!

From Musa Ibn ‘Uqba; when ‘Iyadh Ibn Ghanam was appointed as the governor of Himsh, in the period of Umar Ibn Khattab, some people of his kith and kin intended to ask for his help came to see him. Iyadh welcomed them cheerily, prepared accommodation for them, and did his best to serve them. They stayed for a few days. After that, they finally told that they came to ask for his help. They also revealed their difficulties along their journey to see him, hoping that they could get some help. Then, Iyadh gave each of them 10 dinars, and they were five persons. But they returned the 10 dinars, angrily, and they spoke ill of Iyadh.

Iyadh replied, “O sons of my uncle, by Allah, I am not refusing the family ties among us. And I realized that you have the rights to get my help, also considering the distance you have travelled to get here. But I do not have anything but ones I’ve given to you. More than that, then I have to sell my slave and my properties. So please be kind to understand my condition”

They replied, “By Allah, we can not understand your reason, since you are the Ruler of the half of sham (the territory now comprises Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon, trans.). How can you are incapable to grant us enough money to get home?”

He strictly answered, “Are you telling me to steal a property of Allah?!

فوالله! لأن أُشقَّ بالمنشار أحبُّ إليَّ من أن أخون فلساً أو أتعدَّى!

“By Allah, even if my body were slaughtered by a saw, it will be dearer to me than I have to commit betraying by taking country’s property, even for 1 fulus (the smallest of their currency), or I commit transgression.”

They said, “We already understand your financial condition. As an exchange, give us position on your will. We will work as the other employees and we will get wages as they get. You have known us better, we will not misuse the power you’ve given to us.”

Then he again replied, “Verily, I really want to do kindness and give good service to others. But what if a news reached Umar that I granted positions to my family. He must be accused me of wrongdoing.”

They said, “Wasn’t Abu Ubaida who had appointed you, and you are his close family, and in fact, Umar had agreed of your appointment? If you appoint us, then Umar must be agree too”.

He answered, ” I am not the same as Abu Ubaida in the sight of Umar.” Finally, they went away by speaking ill of Iyadh (Shifat al Shofwah, written by Ibn Al Jauzi 1/669-670, published by Dar al Ma’rifah Beirut).

He is ‘Iyadh Ibn Ghanam Ibn Zuhair. He embraced Islam before the contract of Hudaibiya. He saw the event of Hudaibiyya with His Messenger. When Abu Ubaida was close to his death, he appointed ‘Iyadh to replace his position and Umar agreed his decision.

He was a person who love to spend in charities. Once, one reported to Umar about his condition and accused him of royal in spending wealth, so that Iyadh will be fired. By that report, Umar simply replied, “He was just being kind with his wealth. But if he held the property of Allah (country’s money) he will never give it even a little to anybody. I will not fired the one appointed by Abu Ubaida”. The story above just explained the truth of what Umar Ibn Khattab had said.

Iyadh died without leaving any fortunes behind. He died in the year of 20 H, in the age of 60.

That was an example of the carefulness of companions against corruption, a very rare attitude to be found today.

It is true, what our Prophet had told us:

عَنْ أَبِى هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِىِّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قَالَ « لَيَأْتِيَنَّ عَلَى النَّاسِ زَمَانٌ لاَ يُبَالِى الْمَرْءُ بِمَا أَخَذَ الْمَالَ ، أَمِنْ حَلاَلٍ أَمْ مِنْ حَرَامٍ » .

In the authority Abu Huraira, the Prophet said, “Human will meet a time, when one do not care anymore, whether he got his wealth from a legal, or illegal source.” (Collected by Bukharee, no. 2083)

According to Sheikh Abdul Muhsin al Abbad, the people who care less over the legal or illegal status of a wealth hold a principle, which stated that every reachable wealth is legal. And every unreachable one is illegal. While in Islam, legal are ones legalize by Allah and His Messenger, and vice versa, illegal are ones made illegal by Allah and His Apostle. (Kaifa Yu-addi al Muwazhzhaf al Amanah, pg. 10).

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا يُنْتِنُ مِنَ الإِنْسَانِ بَطْنُهُ ، فَمَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ أَنْ لاَ يَأْكُلَ إِلاَّ طَيِّبًا فَلْيَفْعَلْ

“Indeed, the first part of human body to decay is the stomach. Thus, whoever capable of limiting his foods to the legal ones, then do it.” (Collected by Bukharee, no. 6733, in the authority of Jundan Ibn Abdillah).

Author: Aris Munandar, S.S.
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Prize from Card Lottery


Several department stores usually give certain cards to every visiting customers, which later to be written over their names, and addresses. And every certain period there will be a lot for those cards, and whoever names pulled out of it, will be given a valuable prize. There is no requirement to buy any item in those stores to get the card. What is the ruling for such activity?


This kind of activity clearly designed to attract people’s attention to come to those department stores. The aim is to gain popularity among society and eventually lead them to come and shop in those stores.

Undoubtedly this is meant to yield considerable profits from amount of sales occur due to increasing number of people come to those stores. They hoped that the profits from sales will replaced their budget allocated for prizes, and even higher.

In spite of the effects above, this activity will disadvantaged other department stores which do not do such activity, since people no longer attracted to their stores. As the result, other stores will get losses.

Prophet –Shallallaahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam– used to said:

“It is prohibited to one disadvantage others.” (Recorded by Ahmad and Ibn Maja: the status is valid according to Al Albani)

Rewritten from Ahkam Musabaqah Tijariyah by Sheik Abdullah Ibn Abdirrahman al Jibrin, published by Dar al Qasim, Riyadh

(Translated by Abu ‘Ukkasha Aris Munandar, M.Pdi, with little changes in grammar and structures by editor of

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Question and Answers: Quizzes


Newspapers and magazines today have arranged some quizzes containing questions about various things and not limited to religious matters. They asked their readers to answer to it, and is it required to write the answer down on a coupon available in that newspaper or magazine’s issues. Which means, whoever want to join the quiz to get the prize, must buy the newspaper or magazine first to get the coupon. The winner will be chosen from true answers received by the board of editors.The prize will only be awarded to the chosen readers. What is the legal verdict of such practice?


We believe that it is forbidden to buy such magazine, if the aim is to get the prize provided by them.

They would only arrange such quiz and provide prizes to attract consumers and boost their sales. That is why the answer must be written over the coupon available in that newspaper/magazine; to make sure that ones sent their answers must have bought the particular edition.

Since there’s quiz, the price of the magazines and newspapers will be increased and so will the amount of issues published. This is done due to the positive response given by society towards the media and their prizes.

Hence, we believe that it is forbidden to buy such newspapers or magazines if the aim is to send the answers.

But if one wants to buy the media routinely to read the news provided by them, and to get knowledge from it, and not for the quiz, it is permissible for him to join the quiz and take the prize, if they are lucky enough to win it.

And it is also permitted to participate for those who get the magazine or newspapers without buying them first.

Rewritten from Ahkam Musabaqah Tijariyah by Sheik Abdullah bin Abdirrahman al-Jibrin, published by Dar al-Qasim, Riyadh.

(Translated by Abu ‘Ukkasha Aris Munandar, S.S, with several rearrangements of grammar and structures by

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